网站上线流程

  • 购买服务器,目前选择的是阿里云服务器,选择的是入门型1核1G实例

  • 配置SSH连接
    • 增加本机ssh连接配置,一般激活实例后,ssh的22端口是默认开放的,可以直接通过root用户进行登录配置部署环境,
    • 登录到服务器后,将自己的公钥加入到 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys 配置文件中就可直接通过秘钥进行登录
  • 服务器配置
    • 服务器系统版本:CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)
    • 内存:1G
    • CPU:1核
    • 硬盘:40G

    一. 安装Mysql5.5

    因为服务器配置有点低,所以这边选择安装比较低的mysql版本。从CentOS 7.0发布以来,yum源中开始使用mariadb来代替MySQL的安装。即使你输入的是yum install mysql , 显示的也是mariadb的安装内容,因此,如果使用yum安装MySQL的话,就需要去下载官方指定的yum源。

    网址: https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/

    1. 先卸载mariadb,查看mariadb是否已经安装

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]#  yum list installed | grep mariadb
    mariadb-libs.x86_64                     1:5.5.56-2.el7                 @anaconda
    

    进行卸载

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# yum -y remove mariadb*
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Resolving Dependencies
    ...... 	**省略过程**
    
    Removed:
      mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.56-2.el7
    
    Dependency Removed:
      postfix.x86_64 2:2.10.1-6.el7                                                                redhat-lsb-core.x86_64 0:4.1-27.el7.centos.1
    
    Complete!
    

    2. 获取yum源和数据库安装,官方指南

    wget http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.5-community/el/6/x86_64/mysql-community-release-el6-5.noarch.rpm 	#MySQL5.5yum源
    

    安装yum源

    rpm -ivh mysql-5.5-community/el/6/x86_64/mysql-community-release-el6-5.noarch.rpm 
    

    安装好yum源后,需要修改一下配置文件,文件路径在 /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo,要将5.5的enabled改为1,而5.6的enabled改为0

    # Enable to use MySQL 5.5
    [mysql55-community]
    name=MySQL 5.5 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.5-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    
    # Enable to use MySQL 5.6
    [mysql56-community]
    name=MySQL 5.6 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.6-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=0
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    
    # Note: MySQL 5.7 is currently in development. For use at your own risk.
    # Please read with sub pages: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/relnotes/mysql/5.7/en/
    [mysql57-community-dmr]
    name=MySQL 5.7 Community Server Development Milestone Release
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.7-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=0
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    

    修改后保存退出,开始安装MySQL。在安装之前,可以查看下是否已有MySQL可安装文件

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.*-community.*"
    mysql-connectors-community/x86_64 MySQL Connectors Community                  49
    mysql-tools-community/x86_64      MySQL Tools Community                       61
    mysql55-community/x86_64          MySQL 5.5 Community Server                 449
    

    3. 安装mysql

    # 安装client,devel,server
    yum install mysql-community-client mysql-community-devel mysql-community-server
    

    安装完毕后,可以查看下当前mysql版本

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# rpm -qi mysql-community-server
    Name        : mysql-community-server
    Version     : 5.5.60
    Release     : 2.el6
    Architecture: x86_64
    Install Date: 2018年05月05日 星期六 16:26:00
    ......
    

    4. 启动mysql

    执行 service mysqld start 启动mysql

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# service mysqld start
    Starting mysqld (via systemctl):                           [  OK  ]
    

    ok,mysql安装完毕

    常用命令:

    systemctl start mysqld #启动mysqld

    systemctl stop mysqld #停止mysqld

    systemctl restart mysqld #重启mysqld

    systemctl enable mysqld #设置开机启动

    systemctl status mysqld #查看 MySQL Server 状态

    5. 数据库安全设置

    设置mysql root账户密码

    # mysqladmin -u root password 'new password'
    

    重新登录mysql报如下错误

    ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)
    

    执行如下命令进行解决

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# systemctl stop mysqld		**关闭mysql服务**
    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# mysqld --user=root --skip-grant-tables &		**关闭skip-grant-tables**
    [1] 32163
    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# 180505 16:57:08 [Note] mysqld (mysqld 5.5.60) starting as process 32163 ...
    180505 16:57:08 [Note] Plugin 'FEDERATED' is disabled.
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: Using Linux native AIO
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
    180505 16:57:08 InnoDB: highest supported file format is Barracuda.
    180505 16:57:08  InnoDB: Waiting for the background threads to start
    180505 16:57:09 InnoDB: 5.5.60 started; log sequence number 1595675
    180505 16:57:09 [Note] Server hostname (bind-address): '0.0.0.0'; port: 3306
    180505 16:57:09 [Note]   - '0.0.0.0' resolves to '0.0.0.0';
    180505 16:57:09 [Note] Server socket created on IP: '0.0.0.0'.
    180505 16:57:09 [Note] mysqld: ready for connections.
    Version: '5.5.60'  socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock'  port: 3306  MySQL Community Server (GPL)
    mysql -u root mysql		**空密码登入**
    Reading table information for completion of table and column names
    You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A
    
    Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    Your MySQL connection id is 1
    Server version: 5.5.60 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
    
    Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    
    Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
    affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
    owners.
    
    Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
    
    mysql> UPDATE user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('new password') where USER='root';		**重新设置root密码**
    Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    Rows matched: 4  Changed: 4  Warnings: 0
    
    mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;		**刷新设置**
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> quit
    Bye
    

    二. 安装PHP环境

    1. 开始安装PHP和PHP-FPM

    首先安装EPEL。EPEL即Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux的简称,是为企业级Linux提供的一组高质量的额外软件包

    yum -y install epel-release
    

    安装PHP和PHP-FPM

    yum -y install php php-fpm
    

    查看PHP版本

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# php -v
    PHP 5.4.16 (cli) (built: Mar  7 2018 13:34:47)
    Copyright (c) 1997-2013 The PHP Group
    Zend Engine v2.4.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2013 Zend Technologies
    

    这时发现PHP版本是5.4的,原因是yum默认的epel-release源太低了,而我需要部署的网站是基于Laravel5.5开发的,环境要求:

    • PHP >= 7.0.0 需要重新安装PHP7
    • PHP OpenSSL 扩展
    • PHP PDO 扩展
    • PHP Mbstring 扩展
    • PHP Tokenizer 扩展
    • PHP XML 扩展

    删除之前安装的PHP版本

    yum remove php* php-common
    

    我们需要更换下rpm源,搜索epel-release源并删除后进行更新

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# rpm -qa | grep epel
    epel-release-7-11.noarch
    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# rpm -e epel-release-7-11.noarch
    warning: /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo saved as /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo.rpmsave
    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/epel-release.rpm
    Retrieving https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/epel-release.rpm
    warning: /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.PHnPwl: Header V4 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 62e74ca5: NOKEY
    Preparing...                          ################################# [100%]
    Updating / installing...
       1:epel-release-7-5                 ################################# [100%]
    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/webtatic-release.rpm
    Retrieving https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/webtatic-release.rpm
    warning: /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.ohTozh: Header V4 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 62e74ca5: NOKEY
    Preparing...                          ################################# [100%]
    Updating / installing...
       1:webtatic-release-7-3             ################################# [100%]
    

    重新安装PHP和一些相关扩展

    yum install php72w-cli.x86_64 php72w-common.x86_64 php72w-gd.x86_64 php72w-ldap.x86_64 php72w-mbstring.x86_64 php72w-pdo.x86_64
    

    安装PHP-FPM

    yum install php72w-fpm
    

    再次查看PHP版本

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# php -v
    PHP 7.2.4 (cli) (built: Mar 30 2018 08:49:13) ( NTS )
    Copyright (c) 1997-2018 The PHP Group
    Zend Engine v3.2.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Zend Technologies
    

    启动PHP-FPM

    systemctl start php-fpm
    systemctl enable php-fpm.service		**开机自启动**
    

    常用命令:

    systemctl start php-fpm # 启动

    systemctl stop php-fpm # 停止

    systemctl restart php-fpm # 重启

    systemctl enable php-fpm #开机自启动

    三. 安装Nginx

    1. 开始Nginx

    yum install nginx
    

    安装完毕后,启动Nginx

    systemctl start nginx
    systemctl enable nginx		**系统启动时自动启动Nginx**
    

    常用命令:

    fuser -k 80/tcp # 杀死80端口

    nginx -s stop # 停止

    nginx -s reopen # 重启

    nginx -s reload # 重新载入配置文件

    四. 网站部署

    1. 生成秘钥

    ssh-keygen -t rsa
    

    提示一直回车就行,将生成的秘钥添加到项目托管的git库网站上,因为我的网站是放在Coding上,我直接添加在了项目部署秘钥

    2. 克隆项目

    通过 git clone 命令将项目拉取到服务器上,我这边因为是Nginx,所以我拉取到 /var/www/ 目录下,

    3. 安装composer

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z project_fjylhjjsyxgs]# curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php
    All settings correct for using Composer
    Downloading...
    
    Composer (version 1.6.5) successfully installed to: /var/www/project_fjylhjjsyxgs/composer.phar
    Use it: php composer.phar
    

    移动composer.phar文件到/usr/local/bin目录下 ,使命令全局可用,并更换Packagist中国全量镜像

    mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer
    composer config -g repo.packagist composer https://packagist.phpcomposer.com
    

    通过composer安装项目依赖,但是出现了报错

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z project_fjylhjjsyxgs]# composer install
    Loading composer repositories with package information
    Installing dependencies (including require-dev) from lock file
    Your requirements could not be resolved to an installable set of packages.
    
      Problem 1
        - Installation request for phar-io/manifest 1.0.1 -> satisfiable by phar-io/manifest[1.0.1].
        - phar-io/manifest 1.0.1 requires ext-dom * -> the requested PHP extension dom is missing from your system.
      Problem 2
        - Installation request for phpunit/php-code-coverage 5.3.0 -> satisfiable by phpunit/php-code-coverage[5.3.0].
        - phpunit/php-code-coverage 5.3.0 requires ext-dom * -> the requested PHP extension dom is missing from your system.
      Problem 3
        - Installation request for phpunit/phpunit 6.5.7 -> satisfiable by phpunit/phpunit[6.5.7].
        - phpunit/phpunit 6.5.7 requires ext-dom * -> the requested PHP extension dom is missing from your system.
      Problem 4
        - Installation request for theseer/tokenizer 1.1.0 -> satisfiable by theseer/tokenizer[1.1.0].
        - theseer/tokenizer 1.1.0 requires ext-dom * -> the requested PHP extension dom is missing from your system.
    
      To enable extensions, verify that they are enabled in your .ini files:
        - /etc/php.ini
        - /etc/php.d/bz2.ini
        - /etc/php.d/calendar.ini
        - /etc/php.d/ctype.ini
        - /etc/php.d/curl.ini
        - /etc/php.d/exif.ini
        - /etc/php.d/fileinfo.ini
        - /etc/php.d/ftp.ini
        - /etc/php.d/gd.ini
        - /etc/php.d/gettext.ini
        - /etc/php.d/gmp.ini
        - /etc/php.d/iconv.ini
        - /etc/php.d/json.ini
        - /etc/php.d/ldap.ini
        - /etc/php.d/mbstring.ini
        - /etc/php.d/pdo.ini
        - /etc/php.d/pdo_sqlite.ini
        - /etc/php.d/phar.ini
        - /etc/php.d/shmop.ini
        - /etc/php.d/simplexml.ini
        - /etc/php.d/sockets.ini
        - /etc/php.d/sqlite3.ini
        - /etc/php.d/tokenizer.ini
        - /etc/php.d/xml.ini
        - /etc/php.d/zip.ini
      You can also run `php --ini` inside terminal to see which files are used by PHP in CLI mode.
    

    Google后发现,php-xml扩展有以上需要的相关软件包

    yum install php72w-xml.x86_64
    

    重新执行composer install命令,依赖下载成功

    开始配置Nginx配置

    我本机homestead中的Nginx是通过 /etc/nginx/sites-available 目录设置对应多域名的nginx配置文件,但是不知道服务器上安装的Nginx,却没有这个目录,所以查看了下Nginx.conf文件,发现http模块中有如下一条配置

    	本机homestead中Nginx.conf
    	##
        # Virtual Host Configs
        ##
        include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
        include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
        
        服务器上安装的Nginx.conf
    	# Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.
        # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include
        # for more information.
        include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
    

    那好吧,我估计sites-available也是软连接的conf.d或者sites-enabled目录吧,所以我就直接将官方手册中Nginx配置复制了一份到/etc/nginx/conf.d/域名.conf,修改了一些配置

    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name 域名或公网IP;
        root 项目地址指向到public目录;
    
        add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";
        add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
        add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff";
    
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
    
        charset utf-8;
    
        location / {
            try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;
        }
    
        location = /favicon.ico { access_log off; log_not_found off; }
        location = /robots.txt  { access_log off; log_not_found off; }
    
        error_page 404 /index.php;
    
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
            fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;		**这里有个坑下面讲**
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            include fastcgi_params;
        }
    
        location ~ /\.(?!well-known).* {
            deny all;
        }
    }
    

    配置完毕,保存退出,通过域名访问,发现报502错误,查看下Nginx的错误日志,发现报如下错误

    2018/05/06 20:17:37 [crit] 5898#0: *66 connect() to unix:/var/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock failed (2: No such file or directory) while connecting to upstream,
    

    简单的讲下,php-fpm.sock文件就是让Nginx和PHP-FPM的进程间进行通信的文件,具体的含义,这边就不做详细介绍了。进这个目录查看下是否存在这个目录或文件,发现两个问题:

    • 目录错误,不是/var/run/php,而是/var/run/php-fpm
    • php7.2-fpm.sock这个文件未生成

    未生成原因:php5.3之后的版本,php-fpm.conf里的listen的默认配置是127.0.0.1:9000,也就是tcp的方式,不会生成php-fpm.sock。

    因为这次上线的网站没有什么并发量,unix socket方式要比tcp的方式快而且消耗资源少,所以我还是采用unix socket方式。定位到问题后,修改下 /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf,也就是php-fpm的配置文件,关闭原来的listen方式,然后重启下php-fpm

    ;listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
    listen = /var/run/php-fpm/php7.2-fpm.sock
    

    这个时候,由于职业习惯,想把Nginx也重启下,然后就又碰到了一个问题

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z project_fjylhjjsyxgs]# nginx -s stop
    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z project_fjylhjjsyxgs]# nginx -s reload
    nginx: [error] open() "/run/nginx.pid" failed (2: No such file or directory)
    

    这应该是因为把Nginx进程杀死后pid丢失了,下一次再开启nginx -s reload时无法启动。再次面向Google编程,发现还有挺多人碰到这个问题,所以解决方法马上就能搜索到了,执行如下命令

    nginx -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    nginx -s reload
    

    ok,接着Navicat远程连接到服务器数据库,source下数据库完毕。现看起来应该是可以跑起网站来了。再次访问域名,发现还是502,再次查看Nginx日志,报如下错误:

    2018/05/06 20:37:00 [crit] 6078#0: *1 connect() to unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php7.2-fpm.sock failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream,
    

    和上面报错看起来差不多,但是这次主要问题出在跑Nginx的用户是Nginx,而php-fpm.sock这个文件,监听的Nginx用户没有该权限,导致Nginx无法访问php-fpm.sock这个文件,自然监听就失去了效果,再次修改php-fpm配置文件和重启下php-fpm

    ; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
    ; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
    ; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
    ; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
    ;                 mode is set to 0660
    listen.owner = nginx
    listen.group = nginx
    listen.mode = 0660
    

    重新访问下域名,发现访问任何路由都是白屏,这次状态码都是200了,但是没有任何输出,再次面向Google编程……发现问题:

    由于nginx与php-fpm之间的一个小bug,会导致这样的现象: 网站中的静态页面 .html 都能正常访问,而 .php 文件虽然会返回200状态码, 但实际输出给浏览器的页面内容却是空白。 简而言之,原因是nginx无法正确的将 *.php 文件的地址传递给php-fpm去解析, 相当于php-fpm接受到了请求,但这请求却指向一个不存在的文件,于是返回空结果。 为了解决这个问题,需要改动nginx默认的fastcgiparams配置文件

    /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params 文件的最后增加两行:

    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;  
    fastcgi_param PATH_INFO     $fastcgi_script_name;  
    

    再再再次访问域名,终于正常显示了,但是页面上又出现了新的错误:

    could not find driver(select * from users where deleted = 0)

    任何有sql查询的页面都报如上错误,这个错误多半是因为pdo_mysql未打开或者未安装此模块造成,执行 php -m 发现还真没装,安装php72w-mysql的又遇到一个坑

    yum install php72w-mysql
    

    报如下错误,说缺少libmysqlclient.so.18依赖

    ......
    error: package: php72w-mysql 
    requires: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit)
    Available: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64 (base)
               libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit)
    ......
    

    这就很奇怪了,查看用户库文件目录内libmysqlclient.so.18已经存在

    [root@iZbp17dq2xryqoixibq5u1Z ~]# ll /usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient.so.18
    libmysqlclient.so.18      libmysqlclient.so.18.1.0
    

    这个坑花了一个小时,Google多次尝试无果后,认真思考下可能的原因,想了想可能是mysql版本的问题,修改下 /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo 配置文件,将5.6的enabled设为1,5.5设为0,更新Mysql版本后,再次执行 yum install php72w-mysql 成功安装pdo_mysql模块…...

    至此,网站访问终于成功!

    后续的部署优化,另外开篇记录。